!!The Yeast: Challenge for Technologists and Microbiologists in Beer Production? 
__Date:__ October 15, 2016

__Venue:__ Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences (Norwida 25, 50-375 Wrocław)
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Academia Europaea Wrocław Knowledge Hub and Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences invite students, academic teachers and citizens of Wrocław for a lecture by __[Peter Raspor|User/Raspor_Peter]__ on ''__The Yeast: Challenge for Technologists and Microbiologists in Beer Production? __''. 
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__Short outline of the lecture:__
There	are	many	varieties	and	strains	of	yeast.	In	the	past,	 there	 was a division on	 two	 types	 of	 beer	 yeast:	 ale	 yeast	 (the	 "top-fermenting"	 type,	Saccharomyces cerevisiae)	 and	 lager	 yeast	 (the	 "bottom‐fermenting"	 type, Saccharomyces uvarum,	formerly	known	as	Saccharomyces carlsbergensis).	Although	the	Saccharomyces	species	are still being reclassified, and		both	ale	and	lager	yeast	strains	are constantly	scrutinised	to	prove	the	difference,	the	beer	production	is	constantly going	on.

Since	Cagniard	de	Latour	demonstrated	the	biological	background	of yeast (1836), and	Louis	Pasteur	proved	 that	 fermentation	 is	 caused	 by	 living	 organisms	 and	 asserted	 that	 the	 agents	which	are	responsible	 for	 the	reaction	are	connected	with	 the	yeast	cell (1860), there	have	been many	findings	 which	 helped	 	the brewing	 and	 yeast	 industry	 to flourish	 	 and	 integrate	 many	discoveries	 to	 structural	 innovations	 in	 processing.	 Today	 they	 can	 be perceived as	revolutionary. One of them is the possibility to turn	 fermenters	 from	 horizontal	 to	 vertical	position. Moreover, during the	starter	production	we	went	from	spontaneous	fermentation	to	pure	starter	culture	and	also	downstream	processing	of	beer	when	we	introduced	 filtration	and	pasteurization,	just	to	mention	some	of	them.	Although	the	art	of	brewing	is	as	old	as	Mesopotamian	 and	 Chinese	 cultures,	 the	 real	industrial	development had a significant influence on	 the beer,	yeast	and	brewing	in	last	two	centuries.	The	Industrial	Revolution	is	not	without	consequences	to	beer	quality,	safety	and		diversity	of	the	beers	we	drink	today.
This	 spectrum	 of	 impacts	 is	 rather	 complex to address,	 but	 	 current	challenges of		technologists	and	microbiologists	in	beer	production have to be taken up.	There is still the need	to	answer	many	scientific	and practical	questions	to	go	on	with	modernisation	on	the one	hand	and	to	keep	traditional	beer	heritage	on	the	other.	For	humans,	both	 aspects	are	important	to	be	present	and	preserved	for	our	descendants.	
Based	on	that,	few	issues	are	still	waiting	for	scientific	and	innovative	solutions:		
*Biotechnology	of	conventional	and	nonconventional	yeasts		
*Lactic	Acid	Bacteria	as	performer	and	spoiler		
*Yeast	Stress	&	Performance		
*Food	Safety	issues	‐	more	biochemical	then	microbiological	‐	status	of	gluten‐free	beer.	
*Bio‐Process	engineering	opportunities	and	impact	of	relevant	parameters	in	alcohol‐free	beer	production	
*Commercial	Enzymes	in	Brewing		
*Bio‐Process	engineering	needs	in	combining	in‐line	instrumentation	and	data	monitoring	to	improve	brew	house	and	brewery	efficiency	
*Brewing	through	the	perspective	of	the	craft	brewer
*Eco‐Awareness	&	Sustainability,		

just to name ten of	 the	 most	 challenging	 issues	 in	 beer	 research	 and	 beer	 practice.	However, there	are	many	other	relevant issues	which	should	be	detected	by	researchers	not	only	in	life	sciences	and	technology	area,	but also	in	social sciences	and	humanities,	due	to	their consequences	for	human	wellbeing	and	health.	
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[{Image src='peter_raspor_photo.jpg' caption='' height='190' class='image_left' alt='Peter Raspor'}]__Peter Raspor__ - Guest	professor	at	The	University	of	Natural	Resources	and	Life	Sciences,	Vienna,	2006‐	
Guest	professor	at	University	Vienna,	2008‐	
Guest	professor	at	Faculty	of	Biosistemic	Sciences	at	University	of	Maribor,	2009‐	
Guest	professor	at	Faculty	of	Health	Sciences	at	University	of	Ljubljana,	2011‐	
Retired	professor	of	Microbiology	and	Food	safety	from	University	of	Primorska,	2014‐2016	
Retired	professor	of	Industrial	Microbiology	and	Biotechnology	from	University	of	Ljubljana,	
Retired	professor	of	Food	Biotechnology	from	Budapest	Corvinus	University,	1994‐2006. 
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__Fields of Scholarship:__ 
*Biochemistry and Genetics of Yeast Strains with particular interest in biomass production, ethanol production, extra cellular enzymes synthesis, metal accumulation and flocculation
*All aspects of food and beverage fermentation technology from point of view of biotechnology
*Starter culture production for food biotechnology and food safety
*Solid state cultivation and processing waste recycling
*Food safety issues
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[{Image src='Kopia DSC_0233.png' caption='Participants' height='270' alt='Lecture'}]
[{Image src='Kopia DSC_0257.png' caption='Professor Joanna Kawa-Rygielska (Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences)' height='270' alt='Lecture'}] 
[{Image src='Kopia DSC_0266.png' caption='[Peter Raspor|User/Raspor_Peter]' height='270' alt='Lecture'}]
[{Image src='Kopia DSC_0281.png' caption='Participants' height='270' alt='Lecture'}]